In June 2016, Human Unitec completed the acquisition of four renewable energy projects in Rome, Italy. This projects includes the new technology, GRONE. The Grone is a versatile waste sorting center that acts not only as a recycling center, but also a power plant aimed at eliminating the need for landfills.
The modern land fill is a gross use of space and increasingly becoming a threat to the enviromenment. The primary purpose of the Grone is to sort Municipal Solid Waste (metaks, glass, plastic, textiles, paper, bulky waste).
The Grone separates each resource and allocates it to the proper reclycling zone through an assembly line consisting of a 4 stage process.
Whatever waste is unsalvageable is then used as fuel to maintain its perpetual power system. The power generated from the system can be used to power water desalination plants that offer fresh water to the respective community and revenue to the city.  

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Summary of presentation of the pyrolysis plant

Economic incentive : The financial performance of the plant consists in the fact that starting from plastic or rubber waste it is possible to obtain combustible products that can be sold or used immediately, all with a balanced consumption of electrical and thermal energy.

Premise:

For some time now it has been known that waste should no longer be considered as a burdensome and difficult to dispose of, but as a material and financial resource. The objective proposed by this plant is therefore to obtain a combustible liquid starting from waste, thus, using waste of plastic materials, rubber and pfu tires, (all low-cost resources) through the pyrolysis process an energy is generated (fuel) clean and durable, which offers a real alternative to the fossil energy resource and generates a significant economic return.

OVERVIEW OF THE PLANT

Any type of plastic can be recycled with the normal shredding system, but for this work it must be known exactly the type existing in each waste to be recycled. This fact is difficult due to the very high number of plastic types on the market.
For example, a type of “mother” plastic, polyethylene, can have over 50 subtypes with different compositions. The procedure we have obtained with this pyrolysis plant is a system through which raw materials are recovered through the inverse process of plastic / rubber production, effectively avoiding the disposal of plastic or rubber waste in a landfill..

Both plastics and rubber are industrial products resulting from crude oil, which, with a proper pyrolytic heat treatment (pyrolytic cracking), can reach the initial stage as a function of distillation.

Through the pyrolytic cracking procedure, any type of plastic / rubber decomposes, at a certain temperature, into pyrolytic oil, singaz and coal (coal dust). The quantity of liquid fuel, as well as the secondary products obtained as a result of processing, depends on the characteristics and composition of the raw material (type of plastic, rubber, etc.).

L’olio pirolitico, che è compatibile con il CLU (combustibile liquido leggero), può essere utilizzato così com’è per produrre energia elettrica tramite un apposito generatore, se raffinato, come combustibile (es. gasolio o nafta), per la produzione della plastica, energia termica, solvente, ecc.

The singaz is partly used as a direct fuel in co-generation of pyrolysis with a recovery system, in order to considerably reduce the consumption of the same, to complete the production cycle. Pyrolytic coal can be briquetted and is sold as a secondary fuel used in the industrial process or used in various other sectors.

With the pyrolysis process the material (plastic / rubber) is not burnt, but it is heated without oxygen at a lower temperature than the classical combustion temperature, so the pollution is much lower than the traditional incineration systems.

Operating Method

The splitting of the introduced materials takes place in a thermal reactor, specially designed and sized, at temperatures of 300-500 ° C and with pressure below 0.5 bar. The entire machining process is meticulously monitored by means of optical and acoustic signaling throughout the working activity. The plant in question has a load capacity of about 10,000 kg. ie;

Pyrolysis reactor (position 2-3 of the figure – with a diameter of 2.800 mm and length of 8.000mm) is heated outside by piping the boiling gases to guarantee the temperature necessary for the thermal decomposition process. Water tank with primary cooling tower with 2 compartments (position 13-14) provided with water cooling system.
The vertical separator (position 6) guarantees the cooling of the gas fractions of the synthesis gas through the circulation of cold water in the mantle, in order to separate the gases according to the density.
The average fraction found in the upper part of the separator, after the evacuation of the light gas fractions, is taken by a conduct and is deposited in the storage tank (position 7). To maintain the pressure at a maximum of 0.5 bar, a vacuum pump (position 4) is mounted on the reactor boiling gas line, which ensures control of the pressure in the reactor. The storage tank (position 8) for collecting average fractions is provided with a level monitoring system and content transfer pump which starts automatically, when the maximum level established is reached, towards the external storage tanks. The tank for the collection of light fraction (position 5) is foreseen with a system of level monitoring and content transfer pump that starts automatically when the maximum level is reached, with direction towards the external storage tanks. The pyrolysis gas resulting from thermal decomposition with the separation of the medium and light fractions in the two collecting tanks also contains a non-condensable fraction, remaining in the gaseous state and is reintroduced into the plant’s power supply mixed with methane gas. The aspirated gases are directed before the evacuation to the washing filter provided inside with the system to increase the contact surface between the washing water and the burnt gases with dust content. The gases enter the filter following the route from the bottom upwards and are evacuated through a dispersion chimney (position 12) with a height of 10 meters. The wash water from the burnt gas filter is drawn into the recirculation basin of the cooling water divided into 3 compartments

ALTHOUGH TO CONSIDER ANOTHER FUNDAMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE SYSTEM, THAT HAVING A CONSISTENT SYSTEM FOR THE ELIMINATION OF POLLUTANTS, THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT IS VERY LOW, (far below the EU standards) IS THEREFORE INTENDED IN THE EUROPEAN REGULATIONS.

BIOMASS PLANT CECINA, ITALY

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